3 Simple Forex Trading Strategies that Work Market ...

Easiest strategy for getting started?

It seems like the primary strategies for systematic traders are mean reversion, trend following, arbitrage, and correlation trades. Would you agree? What are some others to be aware of?
What is the simplest or easiest to get working, and with which assets is it easiest to get started?
I've seen some people write that it took them as many as 4 to even 15 years to finally reach profitability. I appreciate the need for hard work, persistence, and the large amount of knowledge a person must internalize to reach this goal, and I'm currently about 8 months into this pursuit. I have no bias as to which asset class I'm willing to focus on (forex, crypto, equities, commodities, all seem fair game to me), but it certainly would be very helpful to know if I'm currently on one of the shorter pathways or the longer pathways.
I've been backtesting trend following with equities and sometimes forex, but I know a lot more about equities than forex. I've also backtested an ORB strategy on equities, but TF seems easier so I feel that's my current focus. My trend follower shows some signs of promise, but I think I need to discover some additional factors to filter out long-term losing stocks, and so I find myself wondering if this is really the strategy that I should continue working on, or if I should investigate something else, like maybe a crypto arbitrage strategy – I have no idea, I've never spent any time learning about that asset or that strategy.
Many thanks to this community for the openness and willingness to share.
submitted by flakyfacefool to algotrading [link] [comments]

Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Swaps* (*But Were Afraid To Ask)

Hello, dummies
It's your old pal, Fuzzy.
As I'm sure you've all noticed, a lot of the stuff that gets posted here is - to put it delicately - fucking ridiculous. More backwards-ass shit gets posted to wallstreetbets than you'd see on a Westboro Baptist community message board. I mean, I had a look at the daily thread yesterday and..... yeesh. I know, I know. We all make like the divine Laura Dern circa 1992 on the daily and stick our hands deep into this steaming heap of shit to find the nuggets of valuable and/or hilarious information within (thanks for reading, BTW). I agree. I love it just the way it is too. That's what makes WSB great.
What I'm getting at is that a lot of the stuff that gets posted here - notwithstanding it being funny or interesting - is just... wrong. Like, fucking your cousin wrong. And to be clear, I mean the fucking your *first* cousin kinda wrong, before my Southerners in the back get all het up (simmer down, Billy Ray - I know Mabel's twice removed on your grand-sister's side). Truly, I try to let it slide. I do my bit to try and put you on the right path. Most of the time, I sleep easy no matter how badly I've seen someone explain what a bank liquidity crisis is. But out of all of those tens of thousands of misguided, autistic attempts at understanding the world of high finance, one thing gets so consistently - so *emphatically* - fucked up and misunderstood by you retards that last night I felt obligated at the end of a long work day to pull together this edition of Finance with Fuzzy just for you. It's so serious I'm not even going to make a u/pokimane gag. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here's a clue. It's in the title of the post.
That's right, friends. Today in the neighborhood we're going to talk all about hedging in financial markets - spots, swaps, collars, forwards, CDS, synthetic CDOs, all that fun shit. Don't worry; I'm going to explain what all the scary words mean and how they impact your OTM RH positions along the way.
We're going to break it down like this. (1) "What's a hedge, Fuzzy?" (2) Common Hedging Strategies and (3) All About ISDAs and Credit Default Swaps.
Before we begin. For the nerds and JV traders in the back (and anyone else who needs to hear this up front) - I am simplifying these descriptions for the purposes of this post. I am also obviously not going to try and cover every exotic form of hedge under the sun or give a detailed summation of what caused the financial crisis. If you are interested in something specific ask a question, but don't try and impress me with your Investopedia skills or technical points I didn't cover; I will just be forced to flex my years of IRL experience on you in the comments and you'll look like a big dummy.
TL;DR? Fuck you. There is no TL;DR. You've come this far already. What's a few more paragraphs? Put down the Cheetos and try to concentrate for the next 5-7 minutes. You'll learn something, and I promise I'll be gentle.
Ready? Let's get started.
1. The Tao of Risk: Hedging as a Way of Life
The simplest way to characterize what a hedge 'is' is to imagine every action having a binary outcome. One is bad, one is good. Red lines, green lines; uppie, downie. With me so far? Good. A 'hedge' is simply the employment of a strategy to mitigate the effect of your action having the wrong binary outcome. You wanted X, but you got Z! Frowny face. A hedge strategy introduces a third outcome. If you hedged against the possibility of Z happening, then you can wind up with Y instead. Not as good as X, but not as bad as Z. The technical definition I like to give my idiot juniors is as follows:
Utilization of a defensive strategy to mitigate risk, at a fraction of the cost to capital of the risk itself.
Congratulations. You just finished Hedging 101. "But Fuzzy, that's easy! I just sold a naked call against my 95% OTM put! I'm adequately hedged!". Spoiler alert: you're not (although good work on executing a collar, which I describe below). What I'm talking about here is what would be referred to as a 'perfect hedge'; a binary outcome where downside is totally mitigated by a risk management strategy. That's not how it works IRL. Pay attention; this is the tricky part.
You can't take a single position and conclude that you're adequately hedged because risks are fluid, not static. So you need to constantly adjust your position in order to maximize the value of the hedge and insure your position. You also need to consider exposure to more than one category of risk. There are micro (specific exposure) risks, and macro (trend exposure) risks, and both need to factor into the hedge calculus.
That's why, in the real world, the value of hedging depends entirely on the design of the hedging strategy itself. Here, when we say "value" of the hedge, we're not talking about cash money - we're talking about the intrinsic value of the hedge relative to the the risk profile of your underlying exposure. To achieve this, people hedge dynamically. In wallstreetbets terms, this means that as the value of your position changes, you need to change your hedges too. The idea is to efficiently and continuously distribute and rebalance risk across different states and periods, taking value from states in which the marginal cost of the hedge is low and putting it back into states where marginal cost of the hedge is high, until the shadow value of your underlying exposure is equalized across your positions. The punchline, I guess, is that one static position is a hedge in the same way that the finger paintings you make for your wife's boyfriend are art - it's technically correct, but you're only playing yourself by believing it.
Anyway. Obviously doing this as a small potatoes trader is hard but it's worth taking into account. Enough basic shit. So how does this work in markets?
2. A Hedging Taxonomy
The best place to start here is a practical question. What does a business need to hedge against? Think about the specific risk that an individual business faces. These are legion, so I'm just going to list a few of the key ones that apply to most corporates. (1) You have commodity risk for the shit you buy or the shit you use. (2) You have currency risk for the money you borrow. (3) You have rate risk on the debt you carry. (4) You have offtake risk for the shit you sell. Complicated, right? To help address the many and varied ways that shit can go wrong in a sophisticated market, smart operators like yours truly have devised a whole bundle of different instruments which can help you manage the risk. I might write about some of the more complicated ones in a later post if people are interested (CDO/CLOs, strip/stack hedges and bond swaps with option toggles come to mind) but let's stick to the basics for now.
(i) Swaps
A swap is one of the most common forms of hedge instrument, and they're used by pretty much everyone that can afford them. The language is complicated but the concept isn't, so pay attention and you'll be fine. This is the most important part of this section so it'll be the longest one.
Swaps are derivative contracts with two counterparties (before you ask, you can't trade 'em on an exchange - they're OTC instruments only). They're used to exchange one cash flow for another cash flow of equal expected value; doing this allows you to take speculative positions on certain financial prices or to alter the cash flows of existing assets or liabilities within a business. "Wait, Fuzz; slow down! What do you mean sets of cash flows?". Fear not, little autist. Ol' Fuzz has you covered.
The cash flows I'm talking about are referred to in swap-land as 'legs'. One leg is fixed - a set payment that's the same every time it gets paid - and the other is variable - it fluctuates (typically indexed off the price of the underlying risk that you are speculating on / protecting against). You set it up at the start so that they're notionally equal and the two legs net off; so at open, the swap is a zero NPV instrument. Here's where the fun starts. If the price that you based the variable leg of the swap on changes, the value of the swap will shift; the party on the wrong side of the move ponies up via the variable payment. It's a zero sum game.
I'll give you an example using the most vanilla swap around; an interest rate trade. Here's how it works. You borrow money from a bank, and they charge you a rate of interest. You lock the rate up front, because you're smart like that. But then - quelle surprise! - the rate gets better after you borrow. Now you're bagholding to the tune of, I don't know, 5 bps. Doesn't sound like much but on a billion dollar loan that's a lot of money (a classic example of the kind of 'small, deep hole' that's terrible for profits). Now, if you had a swap contract on the rate before you entered the trade, you're set; if the rate goes down, you get a payment under the swap. If it goes up, whatever payment you're making to the bank is netted off by the fact that you're borrowing at a sub-market rate. Win-win! Or, at least, Lose Less / Lose Less. That's the name of the game in hedging.
There are many different kinds of swaps, some of which are pretty exotic; but they're all different variations on the same theme. If your business has exposure to something which fluctuates in price, you trade swaps to hedge against the fluctuation. The valuation of swaps is also super interesting but I guarantee you that 99% of you won't understand it so I'm not going to try and explain it here although I encourage you to google it if you're interested.
Because they're OTC, none of them are filed publicly. Someeeeeetimes you see an ISDA (dsicussed below) but the confirms themselves (the individual swaps) are not filed. You can usually read about the hedging strategy in a 10-K, though. For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. Top tip: This is occasionally something worth checking in credit agreements when you invest in businesses that are debt issuers - being able to do this increases the risk profile significantly and is particularly important in times of economic volatility (ctrl+f "non-speculative" in the credit agreement to be sure).
(ii) Forwards
A forward is a contract made today for the future delivery of an asset at a pre-agreed price. That's it. "But Fuzzy! That sounds just like a futures contract!". I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant. I'm not going to go into super boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me.
Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges (see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick for some more color on this). In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1. As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways.
People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made (or take delivery of the thing they need). If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made (and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery). If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance. Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances.
These contracts are incredibly byzantine (and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers). In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them. I (i) do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle (ii) do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and (iii) love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them.
(iii) Collars
No, not the kind your wife is encouraging you to wear try out to 'spice things up' in the bedroom during quarantine. Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable to WSB. Collars deal with options! Hooray!
To execute a basic collar (also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes), you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity. The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies (you can only profit up to the strike price of the call) but also writes down your risk. If you screen large volume trades with a VOL/OI of more than 3 or 4x (and they're not bullshit biotech stocks), you can sometimes see these being constructed in real time as hedge funds protect themselves on their shorts.
(3) All About ISDAs, CDS and Synthetic CDOs
You may have heard about the mythical ISDA. Much like an indenture (discussed in my post on $F), it's a magic legal machine that lets you build swaps via trade confirms with a willing counterparty. They are very complicated legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do. They're made of two parts; a Master (which is a form agreement that's always the same) and a Schedule (which amends the Master to include your specific terms). They are also the engine behind just about every major credit crunch of the last 10+ years.
First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position. You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA.
Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps? Right. So. You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early 2000s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation. These are called credit default swaps. I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once. It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish. WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire.
Here's how it works. You pick a company. Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg . And you write in... whatever you want. A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period... whatever. Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course. But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money. And banks... don't like calling in loans or forcing bankruptcies. Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking?
Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt (loans or bonds). They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the 2000s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in 2008. This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC. "OH!", the people cried. "Look at those big bad bankers buying up subprime loans! They caused this!". Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt. They're synthetic because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular (and remain so) is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain. The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama.
Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt (something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now). This happens in three different ways. (1) Investors who previously were long on the debt hedge their position by selling CDS protection on the underlying, putting downward pressure on the debt price. (2) Investors who previously shorted the debt switch to buying CDS protection because the relatively illiquid debt (partic. when its a bond) trades at a discount below par compared to the CDS. The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price. (3) The delta in price and actual value of the debt tempts some investors to become NBTs (neg basis traders) who long the debt and purchase CDS protection. If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can take leverage (which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position), they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc. Anyway. Enough technical details.
I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today (it's also terribly taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live). But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here.
Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post.
*EDIT 1\* In a total blowout, $PLAY won. So it's D&B time next week. Post will drop Monday at market open.
submitted by fuzzyblankeet to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

Forex Orders 101

u/OK-Face made a post with some questions about limits and stop orders. I started to write up a big comment but then figured I’d just create an “Orders 101” post in case other newbies might find it useful. If you don’t like massive walls of text, now is the time to leave!
The very basics
First you need to know a little about forex market makers. A market maker publishes two prices: the bid price (lower) and the ask price (higher). The market maker will sell you units of a currency pair at the higher ask price, and will buy units of a currency pair back from you at the lower bid price. They make money by buying units at the bid from one user and selling those units at the ask to another user, pocketing the difference.
The difference between the bid and the ask is called the spread. A narrow spread is good for users. If you buy at the ask (or sell at the bid) you only need the bid (ask) to move upwards (downwards) a little bit before you can sell (buy) back to the market maker to close the position for a profit. The spread will vary over time; the market maker wants to keep it narrow to compete for customers but wide enough to ensure they make money even when the market moves unexpectedly. When the market is stable the spread will be narrow; when the market is volatile the spread will be wide.
When someone refers to the price of a currency pair you can usually infer which price (the bid or the ask) they are referring to from the context. If they’re talking about going long (buying) then they are probably referencing the ask. If they are talking about going short (selling) then they are probably referencing the bid. Broker software usually allows you to plot both at the same time, which visualizes not only the prices by the spread (and thus the market maker’s measure of volatility).
The “market price” or “mark” is the midpoint between the bid and ask. It’s sometimes used when charting prices, since it smoothes out changes in the spread.
The details of where the bid and ask prices come from, how they differ between market makers and from inter-bank rates, and how they are related to but very different from bid/ask spreads on exchange-traded instruments like stocks are all well beyond the scope of this post. (But you should learn it eventually!)
Opening and closing a position
First, burn it into your brain that a long position is opened by buying from the market maker at the ask and closed by selling back to the market maker at the bid, while a short position is opened by selling to the market maker at the bid and closed by buying back from the market maker at the ask.
(Really a short position is a loan from the market maker that you can satisfy with units of currency pairs bought back from them at a later time. But whatever.)
When you open a new position you use one of two types of orders: a market order or a limit order.
A market order tells the market maker to fill your order as soon as your order gets to the front of the queue, no matter what the price is. If it’s a market buy to go long on a pair then the order will be filled at the ask price. If it’s a market sell to go short on a pair then the order will be filled at the bid price. The time it takes your order to get to the front of the queue is usually less than a second, but the price could change pretty dramatically in that second. A market order says “I don’t care what happens to the price between now and then, just fill my order as quickly as possible.”
A limit order goes through the order queue too, but when it reaches the front it tells the market maker to wait to fill your order until an acceptable (to you) price is available. If it’s a limit buy to go long on a pair then you specify the maximum ask price you are willing to pay. If it’s a limit sell to go short on a pair then you specify the minimum bid price you are willing to accept. If the price is already acceptable then the order is filled immediately just like a market order, otherwise it waits until it’s filled or canceled.
When you close a position you can also choose a market order or a limit order. If you have a long position then you can either submit a market sell order or a limit sell order to sell back your units at the bid. If you have a short position then you can either submit a market buy order or a limit buy order to buy back the units you shorted at the ask. These orders work just like orders to open a position, but instead of creating a new position they cancel out your existing position. (Hopefully leaving you with a profit.)
It is possible to submit offsetting orders that don’t actually cancel out one another! For example, a market maker may allow you to submit a market buy order to go long one lot of EUUSD and then separately submit a market sell order to go short one lot of EUUSD, and track those two positions separately rather than cancel them out. For this reason an order used to close out a position is sometimes clarified as “to close”, as in “market sell to close”. Most users will close positions by right-clicking the position in their broker’s GUI and click “close” (or something similar); this will automatically submit a market order (buy or sell) to close. Submitting a limit order to close may take more clicks.
Conditional orders to close
When you create an order you can attach conditional orders to close that are only submitted if the bid or ask price moves past a trigger price. You specify the trigger price and the type of order to be submitted when the trigger hits: market or limit. There are four possible combinations, but only three are commonly used.
A conditional market order to close a losing position is called a stop-loss order.
A conditional limit order to close a losing position is called a stop-limit order.
A conditional market order to close a winning position doesn’t have a name and isn’t commonly used.
A conditional limit order to close a winning position is called a take-profit order.
Generally the trigger price is compared to the price (bid or ask) that will be used to close the position. For example, a long position is closed by selling at the bid, so the trigger price for a stop-loss on a long position will be compared to the bid. Some market makers will allow you to get fancy and decide which price your trigger is compared to, which may be useful if, for example, your strategy is entirely based on the ask price but you want to use a conditional order to close a long position without worrying about the spread.
Let’s look at the three common conditional orders to close, from simplest to confusing.
Stop-loss orders
A stop-loss order is a conditional market order to close a losing position. The trigger price is set on the losing side of the position. When the bid/ask price passes the trigger price, a new market order is created to close the position. Like any market order, it is filled at whatever the bid/ask price is when the order makes it to the front of the queue.
For a long position the trigger price is less than the original ask price at which the currency pair was bought. A long position is closed by selling at the bid, so the trigger price is usually compared to the bid. When the bid price falls down to the trigger price a new market sell (to close) order is submitted. When it reaches the front of the queue it’s filled at the current bid, offsetting the position.
For a short position the trigger price is greater than the original bid price at which the currency pair was sold short. A short position is closed by buying at the ask, so the trigger price is usually compared to the ask. When the ask price rises up to the trigger price a new market buy (to close) order is submitted. When it reaches the front of the queue it’s filled at the current ask, offsetting the position.
Stop-loss orders are used as a last resort: “If my losses get too big close the position as fast as possible, even if that means closing at a less advantageous price.” It’s not uncommon for the bid/ask price to shoot past the trigger price so quickly that the price at which the position closes is quite a bit worse than the trigger price. On the other hand, it’s also not uncommon for the price to just barely touch the trigger price (triggering the placement of the market order to close) and bounce back, so that the price at which the position closes is better than the target price. (This latter scenario can sometimes make people wonder why the position was closed, since it may appear that the price never reached the trigger.)
Take-profit orders
A take-profit order is a conditional limit order to close a winning position. The trigger price is set on the winning side of the position. When the bid/ask price passes the trigger price, a new limit order is created to close the position. Like any limit order, it is only filled when the bid/ask price is better for the customer than the specified limit price.
The limit price for a take-profit order is usually the same as the trigger price. (Some market makers may allow it to be different.)
For a long position the trigger (and limit) price is greater than the original ask price at which the currency pair was bought. A long position is closed by selling at the bid, so the trigger price is usually compared to the bid. When the bid price rises up to the trigger price a new limit buy (to close) order is submitted. When it reaches the front of the queue it waits until the current bid is at least equal to the limit price, then it fills and offsets the position.
For a short position the trigger (and limit) price is less than the original bid price at which the currency pair was sold short. A short position is closed by buying at the ask, so the trigger price is usually compared to the ask. When the ask price falls down to the trigger price a new limit sell (to close) order is submitted. When it reaches the front of the queue it waits until the current ask is at most equal to the limit price, then it fills and offsets the position.
Since the limit price is usually set equal to the trigger price, and since the bid/ask price doesn’t usually reverse within the short time while the new order (to close) moves through the queue, a take-profit order usually closes almost immediately after being triggered, at a price at or very slightly above the triggelimit price. However it is possible that the bid/ask price just touched the trigger price and immediately reverses, leaving the limit order (to close) pending on the queue until the price moves favorably again.
Stop-limit orders
Finally we come to the confusing one. A stop-limit order is a conditional limit order to close a losing position. The trigger price is set on the losing side of the position. When the bid/ask price passes the trigger price, a new limit order is created to close the position. Like any limit order, it is only filled when the bid/ask price is better for the customer than the specified limit price.
Unlike a take-profit order, the limit price for a stop-limit order is usually not the same as the trigger price.
For a long position the trigger (and limit) price is less than the original ask price at which the currency pair was bought. A long position is closed by selling at the bid, so the trigger price is usually compared to the bid. When the bid price falls down to the trigger price a new limit sell (to close) order is submitted. When it reaches the front of the queue it waits until the current bid is at least equal to the limit price, then it fills and offsets the position.
For a short position the trigger (and limit) price is greater than the original bid price at which the currency pair was sold short. A short position is closed by buying at the ask, so the trigger price is usually compared to the ask. When the ask price rises up to the trigger price a new limit buy (to close) order is submitted. When it reaches the front of the queue it waits until the current ask is at most equal to the limit price, then it fills and offsets the position.
On first blush this appears to be the opposite of a take-profit order, but it behaves quite differently. Take a long position for example, and consider what happens when the bid price moves quickly down past the trigger and continues to fall. The limit sell order (to close) is submitted but suppose the limit is set close to the trigger price. Since the bid is still falling it’s on the wrong side of the limit price (for the customer) so the limit order won’t fill. A stop-limit order says “If I’m losing money and the price moves to X, try to close my position, but don’t accept anything too much worse than X.”
Because a rapid price movement may pass both the trigger and the limit, the limit needs to be set carefully to give a little “breathing room” for the limit in case of rapid price movement.
Stop-limit orders require careful calculation of triggers and limits to fix risk, or you can end up closing a position early, too late, or not at all!
Final thoughts
I hope you learned something! At the very least, I hope some newbies see that setting stop-losses, stop-limits, and take-profits involves a lot more math and understanding of the mechanics of the market than thinking “this looks like a good place to limit my losses” and clicking the mouse.
Corrections are highly appreciated! I intentionally glossed over a ton of details but if in doing so I omitted something important please let me know!
submitted by thicc_dads_club to Forex [link] [comments]

The Best Forex Trading Strategies

The Best Forex Trading Strategies
Traders are in debate to what the simplest Forex trading strategies are for years. That debate is probably going to continue for several more years to return . What most of the people that are new Forex trading want to understand is what's the simplest and the way can we identify it because the best. i would like to first of all consider what a trading strategy is then check out two differing types and asses them both.
A Forex trading strategy or system is just a group of rules a trader will use to enter, exit and adjust his trade. The strategy may consider fundamental analysis, technical analysis or a touch of both. the solution to which is that the best can't be determined by simply watching the results of a technique but by watching the trader also . Psychology is that the single biggest issue traders' face when completing a winning or losing trade. the power to be ready to stick with your own rules during a losing or winning trade are often challenging. it's for this reason many traders will address automated trading systems to beat the psychological issues they're faced with. Auto trading using EA's has its benefits but it's a incontrovertible fact that markets are actually random which suggests a technique working today might not work tomorrow.
What a few mixture of both?
You could be the simplest analyst within the world and still be a terrible trader! what percentage times have you ever taken a trade with all of your analysis in your head then exited early or not taken the trade in the least . a standard scenario isn't taking the planned trade because you could not commit then taking a random trade that wasn't planned and losing. Sounds ridiculous once you read that scenario but it happens a day .
Imagine a system where you'll use your own analysis to line up a trade then use a trading system to require over and perform your settings so you did not have the Psychology to affect . Surely this is able to be the simplest Forex trading system. the great news is these trading systems are about but not many of us are giving them away. You could, however, have a program coded for you that takes trades supported your rules and eliminates the psychology. If you've got a system that works on a manual basis but only works with certain market conditions then this might be the simplest Forex trading strategy.
Adam discovered very early that trading forex required a significant approach so as for it to be of future profitability. Adam has now been trading for 12 years independently and using his hybrid strategy of automated and manual to form a significant take advantage of the Forex market and claims it because the best forex strategy.

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Demystifying Algorithmic Trading in the Forex World - Markets Media

fintech #trading #algotrading #quantitative #quant #forex #fx #algorithmic

Demystifying Algorithmic Trading in the Forex WorldThis is the first article in a series sponsored by Thomson Reuters Is the time ripe now for using algorithms to trade foreign exchange?
After decades of being used to trade equities and equity derivatives, and as institutional money managers move away from equities and into new asset classes such as forex, can algorithmic trading strategies be incorporated? Equity algorithms have had tremendous lead time to be built, adjusted and implemented in trading. Not to mention that equity algorithms have evolved from the simplest volume-based to the most complex that adjust themselves when seeking liquidity.
But there is a world of difference between the equity markets and the foreign exchange markets. In stocks, there are myriad public and private trading venues from which to use algorithms – upwards of 40 while the forex market is traded by or on a handful of bank trading desks – also known also known as a principal bank trading market.....
Continue reading at: https://www.marketsmedia.com/demystifying-algorithmic-trading-in-the-forex-world/
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financial advisory full definition

The financial advisory full definition

A Monetary Advisor's Many Roles

A monetary advisor is your planning associate. To illustrate you need to retire in 20 years or ship your youngster to a non-public college in 10 years. To perform your objectives, it's possible you'll want a skilled professional to assist make these plans an actuality, and that’s the place a monetary advisor is available in.
Collectively, you and your advisor will cowl many subjects, together with the amount of cash you need to save, the sorts of accounts you want, the sorts of insurance coverage you need to have (together with long-term care, time period life, and incapacity) and property and tax planning.
The monetary advisor can be an educator. A part of the advisor's job is that will help you perceive what's concerned in assembly your future objectives. The schooling course of could embrace detailed assist with monetary subjects. At first of your relationship, these subjects could possibly be budgeting and saving. As you advance in your data, the advisor will help you in understanding advanced funding, insurance coverage, and tax issues.
The 1st step within the monetary advisory course is knowing your financial health. You'll be able to correctly plan for the long run without understanding the place you stand immediately. Sometimes, you can be requested to finish an in-depth written questionnaire. Your solutions assist the advisor to perceive your state of affairs and make sure you do not overlook any essential data.
download free forex indicators.

The Monetary Questionnaire

The advisor works with you to get an entire image of your property, liabilities, revenue, and bills. On the questionnaire, additionally, you will point out future pensions and revenue sources, venture retirement wants and describes any long-term monetary obligations. In brief, you’ll checklist all present and anticipated investments, pensions, items and sources of revenue.
The investing element of the questionnaire touches upon extra subjective subjects, reminiscent of your risk tolerance and risk capacity. An understanding of threat assists the advisor when it’s time to find out your funding asset allocation. You may let the advisor know your funding preferences as nicely.
The preliminary evaluation additionally contains an examination of different monetary administration subjects reminiscent of insurance coverage points and your tax state of affairs. The advisor wants to pay attention to your present estate plan (or lack thereof) in addition to different professionals in your planning group, reminiscent of accountants and legal professionals. When you and the advisor perceive your current monetary place and future projections, you’re able to work collectively on a plan to fulfil your life and monetary objectives.

Creating The Monetary Plan

The monetary advisor synthesizes all of this preliminary data right into a comprehensive financial plan that may function a roadmap to your monetary future. It begins with an abstract of the important thing findings out of your preliminary questionnaire and summarizes your present monetary state of affairs, together with internet price, property, liabilities, and liquid or working capital. The monetary plan additionally recaps the objectives you and the advisor mentioned.
The evaluation part of this prolonged doc drills down into a number of subjects, together with your threat tolerance, estate-planning particulars, household state of affairs, long-term care risk, and different pertinent current and future monetary points.
Primarily based upon your anticipated internet price and future revenue at retirement, the plan will create simulations of doubtless best- and worst-case retirement eventualities, together with the scary risk of outliving your cash, so steps may be taken to forestall that end result. It's going to have a look at cheap withdrawal charges in retirement out of your portfolio property. Moreover, if you're married or in a long-term partnership, the plan will contemplate survivorship points and monetary eventualities for the surviving associate.
After you assessment the plan with the advisor and modify it as mandatory, you’re prepared for motion.

Advisors Plan Motion Steps

A monetary advisor is not only somebody who helps with investments. Their job is that will help you with each facet of your monetary life. In truth, you may work with a monetary advisor without having them handle your portfolio or advocate investments in any respect.
For many individuals, nevertheless, funding recommendation is a significant purpose to work with a monetary advisor. If you happen to select this route, right here’s what to anticipate.
The advisor will arrange an asset allocation that matches each your threat tolerance and threat capability. The asset allocation is solely a rubric to find out what proportion of your complete monetary portfolio might be distributed throughout varied asset lessons. An extra risk-averse particular person can have a better focus of presidency bonds, certificates of deposit and cash market holdings, whereas a person who's extra snug with the threat will tackle extra shares and company bonds and maybe funding actual property. Your asset allocation might be adjusted to your age and for a way lengthy you could have earlier than retirement. Every monetary advisory agency will act in accordance with the regulation and with its firm funding coverage when shopping for and promoting the monetary property.

Monetary Advisors and Investments

It’s essential for you, as the buyer, to grasp what your planner recommends and why. You shouldn't blindly comply with an advisor’s suggestions; it’s your cash, and you need to perceive the way it’s being deployed. Preserve an in-depth eye on the charges you're paying, each to your advisor and for any funds purchased for you.
Ask your advisor why they advocate particular investments and whether or not they're receiving a fee for promoting you these investments. Be alert for potential conflicts of interest.
A commonality amongst corporations is that monetary merchandise is chosen to suit the shopper’s threat profile. Take, for instance, a 50-year-old man who’s already amassed sufficient internet price for retirement and is predominantly fascinated with capital preservation. He could have a really conservative asset allocation of 45% in inventory property (which can embrace particular person shares, mutual funds and/or ETFs) and 55% in fixed-income assets reminiscent of bonds. Alternatively, a 40-year-old girl with a smaller internet price and a willingness to tackle extra threat to construct up her monetary portfolio could go for an asset allocation of 70% inventory property, 25% fixed-income property and 5% alternative investments.
Whereas bearing in mind the agency’s funding philosophy, your private portfolio will suit yours wants primarily based on how quickly you want the cash, your investment horizon, and your current and future objectives.

Common Monetary Monitoring

As soon as your funding plan is in place, you’ll obtain common statements out of your advisor updating you in your portfolio. The advisor can even arrange common conferences to assessment your objectives and progress and to reply to any questions you could have. Assembly remotely by way of cellphone or video chat will help make these contacts occur extra typically.
Along with common, ongoing conferences, it’s essential to seek the advice of together with your monetary advisor once you anticipate a significant change in your life that might impact your financial picture, reminiscent of getting married or divorced, including a toddler to your loved ones, shopping for or promoting a house, altering jobs or getting promoted.

Indicators You Might Want an Advisor

Anybody can work with a monetary advisor at any age and any stage of life. You don’t should have an excessive internet price; you simply have to seek out an advisor suited to your situation.
The choice to enlist skilled assist together with your cash is an extremely private one, however, any time you’re feeling overwhelmed, confused, wired or scared by your monetary state of affairs could also be a very good time to search for a monetary advisor.
It’s additionally advantageous to strategy one once you’re coming from a place of energy however need somebody to make sure that you’re heading in the right direction and recommend potential enhancements to your plan which may make it easier to obtain your objectives extra successfully.
Lastly, should you don’t have the time or curiosity to handle your funds, that’s one other good purpose to rent a monetary advisor.
These are some basic causes you would possibly want an advisor’s skilled assist. Listed below are some extra particular ones.

None of Your Financial savings Is Invested or You Don’t Know How you can Make investments

As a result of we dwell in a world of inflation, any cash you retain in money or in a low-interest account declines in worth annually. Investing is the one technique to make your cash develop, and until you could have exceptionally excessive revenue, investing is the one approach most individuals will ever come up with the money to retire.

You Have Investments, however, You’re Constantly Dropping Cash

Even the perfect buyers lose cash when the market is down or once they decide that doesn’t prove as they’d hoped, however general, investing ought to improve your internet price significantly. If it’s not doing that, hiring a monetary advisor will help you discover out what you’re doing incorrect and proper your course earlier than it’s too late.

You Don’t Have a Present Property Plan

A monetary advisor may make it easier to put collectively a property plan to ensure your property are dealt with in response to your needs after you die. And should you aren’t correctly insured (or aren’t positive what insurance coverage you want), a monetary advisor will help with that, too. Certainly, a fee-only monetary advisor could possibly supply a much less biased opinion than an insurance coverage agent can.

Serving to You Attain Your Objectives

Monetary advisors can help you with investing and reaching your long-term objectives in so some ways. Listed below are 5:
  1. Experience. Monetary advisors know extra about investing and managing cash than most individuals. They'll information you to higher selections than you would possibly make by yourself.
  2. Accountability. Monetary advisors assist hold you on the monitor by speaking you out of constructing emotional choices about your cash, like shopping for an inventory that’s been skyrocketing or promoting all of your inventory funds when the market plummets.
  3. Recommendation. It’s within the title: Monetary advisors could make strategies about the perfect methods to implement to enhance your funds, from what to investments to make to what insurance coverage to purchase.
  4. Evolution. As your life circumstances change, a monetary advisor will help you modify your monetary plan in order that it at all times suits your present state of affairs.
  5. Motion. Many individuals don’t take the steps they need to handle their funds as a result of they’re too busy or too unsure about what to do. Working with a monetary advisor means another person can deal with what you don’t have time for and ensure your cash is being deployed in one of the simplest ways.

The Prices of a Monetary Advisor

A rule proposed by the Division of Labor (DOL) would have required all monetary professionals who work with retirement plans or give retirement plan recommendation to supply recommendation that's within the shopper’s greatest curiosity (the fiduciary standard), versus merely appropriate for the shopper (the suitability standard). The rule was handed, its implementation was delayed after which a courtroom killed it.
However within the roughly three-year interval between President Obama's proposal of the rule and its eventual demise, the media shed extra mild than it had beforehand on the other ways monetary advisors work, how they cost for his or her companies and the way the suitability commonplace may be much less useful to shoppers than the fiduciary commonplace. Some monetary advisors determined to voluntarily transfer to a fiduciary commonplace or extra closely promote that they already operated underneath that commonplace. Others, reminiscent of licensed monetary planners™, already adhered to this commonplace. However, even underneath the DOL rule, the fiduciary standard wouldn't have utilized to the non-retirement recommendation – an ordinary certain to trigger confusion.
Below the suitability commonplace, monetary advisors work on a fee for the merchandise they promote to shoppers. This implies the shopper could by no means obtain an invoice from the monetary advisor. Then again, they might find yourself with monetary merchandise that charger greater charges than others available on the market – however, pay the advisor an excessive fee for placing shoppers into them.
Below the fiduciary commonplace, advisors cost shoppers by the hour or as a proportion of the property underneath administration. A typical proportion charge is 1%, whereas a typical hourly fee for monetary recommendation ranges from $120 to $300. Charges range by location and the advisor’s expertise. Some advisors could supply decrease charges to assist shoppers who're simply getting began with monetary planning and mightn't afford a lot. A preliminary session is commonly free and supplies an opportunity for each the shopper and the advisor to see in the event that they’re a very good match for one another.
Financial advisors can also earn a mixture of charges and commissions. A fee-based monetary advisor is not the same as a fee-only financial advisor. A fee-based advisor could earn a charge for growing a monetary plan for you, however nonetheless earn a fee for promoting you a sure insurance coverage product or funding. A fee-only monetary advisor earns no commissions.
The Securities and Alternate Fee proposed its personal fiduciary rule referred to as Regulation Best Interest in April 2018. In some methods, it will be much less strict than the DOL’s fiduciary rule would have been, doubtlessly addressing the considerations of a number of the DOL rule’s critics. In one other approach, it will be broader: It might not be restricted to retirement investments.

Contemplating a Robo-Advisor

A digital monetary advisor, or robot-advisor, is an organization that makes use of pc algorithms to handle your cash primarily based in your solutions to questions on your objectives and threat tolerance. Robo-advisors don’t require you to have a lot of cash to get began they usually price lower than human monetary advisors. Examples embrace Betterment and Wealthfront. These companies can save you time and take the emotion out of investing.
However, a robust-advisor can’t communicate with you about one of the simplest ways to get out of debt or fund your youngster’s schooling. It can also speak you out of promoting your investments out of concern when you have to be holding on to them for the long term. Nor can it make it easier to construct and handle a portfolio of particular person shares. Robo-advisors usually make investments shoppers’ cash in a portfolio of ETFs and mutual funds that present inventory and bond publicity and monitor a market index. And if in case you have a posh property or tax problem, you want the extremely personalised recommendation that solely a human can supply (for now, anyway).
Some corporations, nevertheless, mix digitally managed portfolio funding with the choice for human interplay – at an extra price. One such service is Personal Capital. Some individuals name these companies digital advisors as a result of interactions occur by cellphone or video chat as an alternative of an individual; others use the phrases “robot-advisor” and “digital advisor” synonymously.

What's a Monetary Advisor

A monetary advisor supplies monetary recommendation or steerage to clients for compensation. Monetary advisors, or advisers, can present many various companies, reminiscent of funding administration, revenue tax preparation and estate planning. They have to carry the Series 65 license to conduct enterprise with the general public; all kinds of licenses can be found for the companies offered by a monetary advisor.

BREAKING DOWN Monetary Advisor

"Monetary advisor" is a generic time period with no exact business definition, and plenty of various kinds of monetary professionals fall into this basic class. Stockbrokers, insurance coverage brokers, tax preparers, investment managers and monetary planners are all members of this group. Property planners and bankers can also fall underneath this umbrella.

Completely different Examples of Monetary Advisors

What could cross as a monetary advisor in some situations could also be a product salesperson, reminiscent of a stockbroker or a life insurance coverage agent. A real monetary advisor needs to be a well-educated, credentialed, skilled, monetary skilled who works on behalf of his shoppers versus serving the pursuits of a monetary establishment. Typically, a monetary advisor is an unbiased practitioner who operates in a fiduciary capability through which a shopper’s pursuits come earlier than his personal. Solely Registered Investment Advisors (RIA), who're ruled by the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, are held to a real fiduciary commonplace. There are some brokers and brokers who attempt to follow on this capability, nevertheless, their compensation construction is such that they're certain by the contracts of the businesses the place they work.

The Fiduciary Distinction

For the reason, that enactment of the Funding Adviser Act of 1940, two sorts of relationships has existed between monetary intermediaries and their shoppers. These are the “arms size” relationship that characterizes the transactions between registered representatives and shoppers within the broker-dealer area, and the fiduciary relationship that requires advisors registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as Registered Funding Advisors to train duties of loyalty, care and full disclosure of their interactions with shoppers. Whereas the previous is predicated on the precept of “caveat emptor” guided by self-governed guidelines of “suitability” and “reasonableness” in recommending a funding product or technique, the latter is grounded in federal legal guidelines that impose the best moral requirements. At its core, the fiduciary relationship depends on the need {that a} monetary advisor should act on behalf of a shopper in an approach the shopper would act for himself if he had the requisite data and abilities to take action.

What's a Monetary Adviser

A monetary adviser (or advisor) is knowledgeable who supplies monetary steerage to shoppers primarily based on their wants and objectives. Sometimes, they supply shoppers with monetary merchandise, companies, planning or recommendation associated with investing, retirement, insurance coverage, mortgages, school financial savings, property planning, taxes and extra. Another name for monetary adviser embraces "funding advisor" and "registered representative." Monetary advisers can be insurance coverage brokers, accountants or attorneys.

Breaking Down Monetary Adviser

A big problem to think about when evaluating a monetary adviser or deciding on what sort of adviser to me is how they're paid. Some monetary advisors are paid a flat charge for his or her recommendation and are thought-about fiduciaries, whereas others earn commissions from the merchandise they promote to their shoppers. Some advisors, reminiscent of within the case of a hybrid adviser or dually registered advisor, cost charges in addition to earning commissions relying on the product they're promoting or the service they're offering. Charge-only preparations are broadly thought-about to be higher for the shopper.
Monetary advisers are required to fulfil a fiduciary commonplace. In keeping with the Securities and Alternate Fee, advisers should:

How Monetary Advisors Are Compensated

The commonest approach advisers are paid is predicated on a proportion of complete property underneath advisory, normally about 1-2% (or decrease the bigger that sum will get). Some advisors are paid by way of commissions from insurance coverage or monetary merchandise they promote, although this could result in a battle of curiosity due to the motivation to advocate the perfect product commission-wise and never essentially the only option for the shopper. Such an individual is appearing as a salesman and should merely meet a suitability commonplace slightly than an extra-stringent fiduciary commonplace. Hybrid advisors, a fast-growing phase of the advisory enterprise due to its flexibility, are paid by way of fee for promoting some merchandise and likewise charges for companies and recommendation as a fiduciary. This association is also known as "fee-based" (versus "fee-only," which refers to a 100% fiduciary). Some advisers are paid by way of an hourly charge, or a flat charge for particular companies or tasks, or by way of every day (typically quarterly) retainer charge.

How you can Discover a Monetary Adviser

Except for asking family and friends for referrals, skilled organizations just like the Monetary Planning Affiliation (FPA) and the Nationwide Affiliation of Private Monetary Advisors (NAPFA) will help a person discover an adviser. When selecting a monetary adviser, it is essential to ask if they've any FINRA licenses or official credentials. Licensed Monetary Planner® (CFP®), chartered monetary analyst (CFA), chartered monetary guide (ChFC), and registered funding advisor (RIA) are good indicators of an adviser's {qualifications}.

How you can Change into a Monetary Adviser

Many international locations require people to finish coaching or receive a license to turn into a monetary advisor. In America, monetary advisors should carry a Sequence 65 or 66 licenses as stipulated by the Monetary Trade Regulatory Authority (FINRA). In keeping with FINRA, funding advisors, brokers, accountants, insurance coverage brokers and monetary planners can use the time period "monetary adviser." The North American Securities Directors Affiliation supplies a very good brief overview of financial adviser requirements.

Monetary Adviser vs. Advisor

Whereas 'adviser' spelt with an 'e' is the official spelling as per the Funding Advisers Act of 1940, 'advisor' with an 'o' is appropriate to confer with somebody who supplies recommendation. Nonetheless, when utilized in reference to the authorized designation 'adviser' needs to be used.

What Is a Fiduciary?

A fiduciary is an individual or group that acts on behalf of one other individual or individuals to handle the property. Primarily, a fiduciary owes to that different entity the duties of good faith and belief. The best-authorized obligation of 1 social gathering to a different, being a fiduciary requires being certain ethically to behave within the different's greatest pursuits.
A fiduciary may be answerable for basic well-being, however, typically the duty includes funds—managing the property of one other individual, or of a bunch of individuals, for instance. Cash managers, monetary advisors, bankers, accountants, executors, board members, and company officers all have fiduciary accountability.

Fiduciary Defined

A fiduciary's obligations or duties are each moral and authorized. When a celebration knowingly accepts the fiduciary duty on behalf of one other social gathering, they're required to behave in the perfect curiosity of the principal, the social gathering whose property they're managing. That is what is called a "prudent individual commonplace of care," an ordinary that initially stems from an 1830 courtroom ruling.
This formulation of the prudent-person rule required that an individual appearing as fiduciary was required to behave at the start with the wants of beneficiaries in thoughts.
The fiduciary is anticipated to handle the property for the advantage of the opposite individual, slightly than for their very own revenue, and can't profit personally from their administration of property.
Usually, no revenue is to be constituted of the connection until express consent is granted on the time the connection begins. For example, in the UK, fiduciaries can not revenue from their place, in response to an English Excessive Court docket ruling, Keech vs. Sandford (1726). If the principal supplies consent, then the fiduciary can hold no matter profit they've acquired; these advantages may be both financial or outlined extra broadly as an "alternative."
Fiduciary duties seem in all kinds of widespread enterprise relationships, together with:

Fiduciary Trustee/Beneficiary

Property preparations and applied trusts contain a trustee and a beneficiary. A person named as a belief or property trustee is the fiduciary, and the beneficiary is the principal. Below a trustee/beneficiary obligation, the fiduciary has authorized possession of the property or property and holds the ability essential to deal with property held within the title of the belief.
Nonetheless, the trustee should make choices which might be in the perfect curiosity of the beneficiary because the latter holds equitable title to the property. The trustee/beneficiary relationship is a crucial facet of complete property planning, and particular care needs to be taken to find out who's designated as trustee.
Politicians typically arrange blind trusts with the intention to keep away from conflict-of-interest scandals. A blind belief is a relationship through which a trustee is accountable for the funding of a beneficiary's corpus (property) without the beneficiary understanding how the corpus is being invested. Even whereas the beneficiary has no data, the trustee has a fiduciary obligation to speculate the corpus in response to the prudent individual commonplace of conduct.

KEY TAKEAWAYS

Board MembeShareholder

An identical fiduciary obligation may be held by company administrators, as they are often thought-about trustees for stockholders if on the board of a company, or trustees of depositors if service as director of a financial institution. Particular duties embrace:

The Obligation of Care

This is applicable to the best way the board makes choices that have an effect on the way forward for the enterprise. The board has the obligation to completely examine all potential choices and the way they could impression the enterprise; If the board is voting to elect a brand new CEO, for instance, the choice shouldn't be made primarily based solely on the board's data or opinion of 1 potential candidate; it's the board's accountability to analyze all viable candidates to make sure the perfect individual for the job is chosen.

The Obligation to Act in Good Religion

Even after it moderately investigates all of the choices earlier than it, the board has the accountability to decide on the choice it believes greatest serves the pursuits of the enterprise and its shareholders.

The Obligation of Loyalty

This implies the board is required to place no different causes, pursuits or affiliations above its allegiance to the corporate and the corporate's buyers. Board members should chorus from private or skilled dealings which may put their very own self-interest or that of one other individual or enterprise above the curiosity of the corporate.
If a member of a board of administrators is discovered to be in breach of their fiduciary obligation, they are often held liable in a courtroom of regulation by the corporate itself or its shareholders.

Fiduciary as ExecutoLegatee

Fiduciary actions may apply to particular or one-time transactions. For instance, a fiduciary deed is used to switch property rights in a sale when a fiduciary should act as an executor of the sale on behalf of the property proprietor. A fiduciary deed is helpful when a property proprietor needs to promote however is unable to deal with their affairs as a consequence of sickness, incompetence, or different circumstances, and wishes somebody to behave of their stead.
A fiduciary is required by regulation to confide in the potential purchaser the true situation of the property being offered, they usually can not obtain any monetary advantages from the sale. A fiduciary deed can be helpful when the property proprietor is deceased and their property is a part of a property that wants oversight or administration.

Guardian/Ward Fiduciary

Below a guardian/ward relationship, authorized guardianship of a minor is transferred to an appointed grownup. Because the fiduciary, the guardian is tasked with making certain the minor youngster or ward has acceptable care, which may embrace deciding the place the minor attends faculty, that the minor has appropriate medical care, that they're disciplined in an inexpensive method, and that their everyday welfare stays intact.
A guardian is appointed by the state courtroom when the pure guardian of a minor youngster just isn't capable of taking care of the kid any longer. In most states, a guardian/ward relationship stays intact until the minor youngster reaches the age of majority.

Legal professional/Consumer Fiduciary

The legal professional/shopper fiduciary relationship is arguably one of the stringent. The U.S. Supreme Court docket states that the best degree of belief and confidence should exist between a legal professional and shopper—and that a legal professional, as fiduciary, should act in full equity, loyalty, and constancy in every illustration of, and coping with, shoppers.
Attorneys are held accountable for breaches of their fiduciary duties by the shopper and are accountable to the courtroom through which that shopper is represented when a breach happens.

Fiduciary Principal/Agent

An extra generic instance of fiduciary obligation lies within the principal/agent relationship. Any particular person individual, company, partnership, or authorities company can act as a principal or agent so long as the individual or enterprise has the authorized capability to take action. Below a principal/agent obligation, an agent is legally appointed to behave on behalf of the principal without the battle of curiosity.
A standard instance of a principal/agent relationship that means fiduciary obligation is a bunch of shareholders as principals electing administration or C-suite people to behave as brokers. Equally, buyers act as principals when choosing funding fund managers as brokers to handle the property.

Funding Fiduciary

Whereas it might appear as if a funding fiduciary could be a monetary skilled (cash supervisor, banker, and so forth), a funding fiduciary is anyone who has the obligation for managing any person else's cash. Which means should you volunteered to take a seat on the funding committee of the board of your native charity or different group, you could have fiduciary accountability. You will have been positioned able of belief, and there could also be penalties for the betrayal of that belief.
Additionally, hiring a monetary or funding professional doesn't relieve the committee members of all of their duties. They nonetheless have an obligation to prudently choose and monitor the actions of the professional.

Suitability vs. Fiduciary Customary

In case your funding advisor is a Registered Investment Advisor, they share fiduciary accountability with the funding committee. Then again, a dealer, who works for a broker-dealer, could not. Some brokerage corporations don't need or permit their brokers to be fiduciaries.
Funding advisors, who're normally fee-based, are certain to a fiduciary commonplace that was established as a part of the Investment Advisers Act of 1940. They are often regulated by the SEC or state securities regulators. The act is fairly particular in defining what a fiduciary means, and it stipulates an obligation of loyalty and care, which implies that the advisor should put their shopper's pursuits above their very own.
For instance, the advisor can not purchase securities for his or her account prior to purchasing them for a shopper and is prohibited from making trades that will end in greater commissions for the advisor or their funding agency.
It additionally implies that the advisor should do their greatest to ensure funding recommendation is made utilizing correct and full data—principally, that the evaluation is thorough and as correct as potential. Avoiding conflicts of curiosity are essential when appearing as a fiduciary, and it implies that an advisor should disclose any potential conflicts to put the shopper's pursuits forward of the advisor's.
Moreover, the advisor wants to put trades underneath a "greatest execution" commonplace, that means that they have to try to commerce securities with the perfect mixture of low price and environment-friendly execution.

The Suitability Rule

Dealer-dealers, who are sometimes compensated by a fee, usually solely have to satisfy a suitability obligation. That is outlined as making suggestions which might be in keeping with the wants and preferences of the underlying buyer. Dealer-dealers are regulated by the Monetary Trade Regulatory Authority (FINRA) underneath requirements that require them to make appropriate suggestions to their shoppers.
As an alternative of getting to put their pursuits under that of the shopper, the suitability commonplace solely particulars that the broker-dealer has to moderately consider that any suggestions made are appropriate for the shopper when it comes to the shopper's monetary wants, aims, and distinctive circumstances. A key distinction when it comes to loyalty can be essential: A dealer's major obligation is to their employer, the broker-dealer for whom they work, to not their shoppers.
Different descriptions of suitability embrace ensuring transaction prices aren't extreme and that their suggestions aren't unsuitable for the shopper. Examples that will violate suitability embrace extreme buying and selling, churning the account merely to generate extra commissions, and often switching account property to generate transaction revenue for the broker-dealer.
Additionally, the necessity to disclose potential conflicts of curiosity just isn't as strict a requirement for brokers; funding solely must be appropriate, it would not essentially be in keeping with the person investor's aims and profile.

A broker-dealer follows the suitability commonplace: Funding selections have to be appropriate for the shopper, however, can nonetheless be extra helpful to the dealer than the easiest choice; the dealer's major accountability is to their agency, not their shopper.
The suitability commonplace can find yourself inflicting conflicts between a broker-dealer and shopper. The obvious battle has to do with compensation. Below a fiduciary commonplace, a funding advisor could be strictly prohibited from shopping for a mutual fund or different funding for a shopper as a result of it will garner the dealer the next charge or fee than a choice that will price the shopper much less—or yield extra for the shopper.
Below the suitability requirement, so long as the funding is appropriate for the shopper, it may be bought for the shopper. This could additionally incentivize brokers to promote their very own merchandise forward of competing for merchandise that will price much less.

The Brief-Lived Fiduciary Rule

Whereas the time period "suitability" was usual for transactional accounts or brokerage accounts, the Department of Labor Fiduciary Rule, proposed to toughen issues up for brokers. Anybody with retirement cash underneath administration, who made suggestions or solicitations for an IRA or different tax-advantaged retirement accounts, could be thought-about a fiduciary required to stick to that commonplace, slightly than to the suitability commonplace that was in any other case in impact.
The fiduciary rule had a protracted—and in the end unsuccessful—implementation. Initially proposed in 2010, it was scheduled to enter impact between April 10, 2017, and January 1, 2018. After President Trump took workplace it was postponed to June 9, 2017, together with a transition interval for sure exemptions extending via January 1, 2018.
Subsequently, implementation of all components of the rule was pushed again to July 1, 2019. Earlier than that would occur, the rule was vacated following a June 2018 decision by the Fifth U.S. Circuit Court.
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Demystifying Algorithmic Trading in the Forex World - Markets Media

fintech #trading #algotrading #quantitative #quant #forex #fx #algorithmic

Demystifying Algorithmic Trading in the Forex WorldThis is the first article in a series sponsored by Thomson Reuters Is the time ripe now for using algorithms to trade foreign exchange?
After decades of being used to trade equities and equity derivatives, and as institutional money managers move away from equities and into new asset classes such as forex, can algorithmic trading strategies be incorporated? Equity algorithms have had tremendous lead time to be built, adjusted and implemented in trading. Not to mention that equity algorithms have evolved from the simplest volume-based to the most complex that adjust themselves when seeking liquidity.
But there is a world of difference between the equity markets and the foreign exchange markets. In stocks, there are myriad public and private trading venues from which to use algorithms – upwards of 40 while the forex market is traded by or on a handful of bank trading desks – also known also known as a principal bank trading market.....
Continue reading at: https://www.marketsmedia.com/demystifying-algorithmic-trading-in-the-forex-world/
submitted by silahian to quant_hft [link] [comments]

Crypto exchange trade. Remember psychology!

https://medium.com/@sergiygolubyev/crypto-exchange-trade-remember-psychology-6d4433569d9d
Crypto Exchange is a high-tech platform in which all trade transactions are conducted using modern software created based on the latest IT solutions. The emergence of new types of currencies, in particular cryptocurrencies, gives a chance for the rapid development of the world economy as a whole. In turn, structural changes in the international economic system gave impetus to the emergence and development of new types of exchange technologies. Thus, crypto exchanges appeared which allowed its participants anywhere in the world to buy, sell and exchange one cryptocurrency for others, or for fiat of other countries. Each crypto exchange tries to offer customers convenient ways to convert financial instruments, and provides the ability to conduct transactions on its own terms. The high rates of development and distribution of cryptocurrencies, which are based on Blockchain, as well as the gradual wide recognition by the world community and leading economists, ensure the further improvement of exchange technologies. This means that in an effort to provide the most comfortable conditions for its customers, each crypto exchange will take them to an ever-higher quality level of service with innovative nuances. But at the same time, within the framework of the technological process of stock trading, which is available to users (from professional traders to amateurs), the question of psychology and its role in the decision making has not been canceled. Successful trading depends on 70% primarily on the psychology of a trader and only 30% on the trading scheme/strategy.
Trading on the exchange, it is necessary to develop discipline, self-control and be able to respond quickly to changing stock charts. All this will allow you to earn and minimize your losses more effectively. Everyone should remember, from the amateur to the professional, that in the financial markets you can not only earn money, but also lose money. Cryptocurrency rates are still subject to political and regulatory influences; their value is influenced by the reputation of the company's founders, informational insertions about blockchain projects and plans for their further development, scandals and disclosures. Nevertheless, there are simple rules for successful trading from the field of psychology, which will reduce the risks when trying to make money on cryptocurrency and not only. There are a number of problems that always hinder every beginner - amateur:
· Excitement
· Fear
· Greed
· Unwillingness to learn new things
· Imaginary visualization of results
All these problems have psychological aspects. Emotions, feelings and desires significantly influence the trading decisions made by the trader. This happens all the time, not only on traditional exchanges, but also in the cryptocurrency sphere as well. Excitement is an emotional state when it seems to a person that he is lucky, and as the series of successful transactions continues, he performs larger by volume financial transactions. Often, the excitement motivates to turn away from long-term transactions and trends, and look towards short-term operations. After all, it seems that the more often you successfully complete operations, the more capital you earn. Not at all! The more often you make mistakes, leading to a default on your account. Money only is earned on long-term trends and operations. Traders are often worried, fearing an unsuccessful deal closing.
Of course, a loss is bad, but sometimes it is better to close a position in minus than to lose a large amount only because of the hope of a quick price reversal. Therefore, fear often pushes for the wrong strategic decisions. Fear of loss as a result becomes a sentence for your positioning in profit. On the same face with fear, if not strange, is the factor of greed. Having essentially a different source of inspiration, greed, like fear, leads to a generally pitiable result — to the default of your trading account. The reluctance to learn new strategies, technologies, and denial of forecasting also leads to failure. Successful is who always strives to learn new things, and perceives the fact and necessity of continuous learning. Since learning is a process of striving for the progress of its results and professional qualities. Another scourge - Wish list or visualization. Everyone wants to see the price move in the right direction. This is pretty dangerous. By visualizing the price jump in the right direction, you can dream and invest too much in cryptocurrency. This will lead to losses. Here you should always remember to diversify your investments. Remember your psychological portrait even when you program your trading strategies, algorithms and bots. After all, your algorithm is essentially your psychological portrait. Finally, the above-mentioned flaws, especially in the strategy can dominate and damage your deposit and reputation. The main signs of competent crypto-trade are the same as on other exchanges (such as FOREX). This is a kind of algorithm for a sustainable profit strategy:
· Risk no more than 10% of the deposit
· Use risk per trade of 5% or less
· Do not close profitable deals too early
· Do not accumulate losing trades
· Fix quick speculative profit
· Respect the trend
· Pay more attention to liquid assets (cryptocurrency)
· Set your personal entry and exit rules for trades and stick to them
· Long-term trading strategy gives you maximum steady profits
· Do not use the principles of Martingale tactics if there is no experience. You cannot double the volume of the transaction, if it closed in the red zone. If a loss was incurred, then the cryptocurrency market situation was predicted incorrectly and it was necessary to work on improving the analytical skills, and not to conclude a larger deal, which probably also closes in the negative
It is obvious that the psychology of trading significantly affects the performance of stock speculation both in the traditional market and in the field of cryptocurrency. It is important to remember that the success of a person in any field of activity depends on the emotional component, namely the internal balance. Exchange trading is a nervous activity, and if you do not learn to take emotions under control, the results can be disastrous. The basis for achieving success in stock trading, in my opinion, are two fundamental factors. The first factor relates to the field of formulation of the trading idea, and the second - to the area of ​​its implementation.
To formulate a trading idea, on the one hand, methods of technical and fundamental analysis are used to select an exchange instrument and determine the moment of opening and closing a position on it. On the other hand, capital management methods are used to determine the optimal size of the position being opened. As you know, without these two crucial moments it is impossible to achieve stable success in stock trading. As experience shows, for the most part, people have enough intelligence to master all the necessary theoretical knowledge of technical and fundamental analysis in a few months of intensive training. There are no special intellectual difficulties. But, as the same experience shows, this is clearly not enough for successful exchange trading, since all knowledge may turn out to be a useless load if the second success factor is not sufficiently present - the practical implementation of trading ideas, which is no longer based on the intellectual sphere, and psycho-emotional. It is within this area that the main problem arises for many traders, which prevents the receipt of stable profits. As a rule, this is due to the psycho-emotional profile of a person. It depends on how the trader will behave in the psychologically stressful situations that the exchange trading is full of. Inherent in all human emotions and feelings - fear, greed, excitement, envy, hope, etc. very often have a decisive influence on the behavior of traders, not allowing them to follow strictly the trading strategy and plan, even if they have one. From a psychological point of view, the process of stock exchange activity can be divided into stages, after which the trader can return to the starting point. The above scenarios and risk factors are one of the options for the behavior of an exchange speculator; however, it often happens exactly the opposite. Having suffered losses from his first transactions in the market, the trader loses interest in exchange trading, he gives up and he falls into despair. In this case, the first step to victory is the admission of defeat. It would seem silly and ridiculous, but it works. After that, there are two options: either the trader leaves the exchange forever, or returns to the battlefield. Such “returns” may occur more than once. In addition, at some other time, after repeated analysis of his actions, mistakes made and their consequences, a person from a beginner begins to turn into an experienced trader, which is marked by the stability of his activity and, perhaps, by slow, but surely growth of his deposit and profit. The psychological basis for success in trading, which leads to victory and the absence of which is equivalent to defeat, are as follows:
· It is not only the lack of self-control, discipline and focus on the process that causes the defeat
· Self-control, discipline and ability to concentrate is not enough to achieve success
· To achieve success, it is equally important to be able to adapt to changes
In principle, one can consider the idea that traditional approaches to the psychology of trading are limited. In the majority of benefits for traders, the key qualities necessary for successful exchange trading are only self-control and discipline. Of course, these qualities are necessary in any field of business activities. Trading is not an exception, especially considering that it is in the risk zone. But self-control and discipline are not enough to achieve success. Trading is a business. Moreover, any business does not stand still. You cannot find a formula for success and use it forever. You will need to monitor trends and constantly look for new successful solutions.
The main feature of a successful trader is adaptability to changes. The lack of development leads to defeat, large monetary losses. Many technology companies continued to produce stationary computers when laptops became popular. The same companies continued to produce laptops when tablets appeared and became popular. The products of these companies were of high quality, and their employees organized pre-set tasks in an organized manner. But they lost large sums due to the fact that they could not adapt to changes in demand. If we draw a parallel with the sphere of investment, the similarities will become noticeable. The stock market, like any other subject to change. One period is replaced by another. Those methods that allowed achieving success in the previous period can lead to failure in the current. The key concept in stock trading is volatility. The change in this indicates the onset of a new period. When volatility increases, trade becomes more risky. Accordingly, with a decrease in this indicator, the degree of risk during trading operations decreases. With a high level of volatility, trends most often unfold. Strong and weak positions can be swapped out. With a high level of volatility, trends continue for some time. From the foregoing, it should be concluded that market processes and methods during periods of high and low volatility differ strongly. You cannot use the same methods during changing market trends. Often it is the adherence to the previous methods, excessive discipline leads to collapse as well. The fact that the investor was defeated does not mean that he suddenly became morally unstable, unorganized. Trading is trading.
Therefore, we have every right to assert that under the psychology of trade in the markets is meant human preparedness for the risks that inevitably accompany any activity. Trading on the stock exchange is based on the interaction of the three most important components: capital management, analysis, and the psychology of trading (which cannot be considered in conjunction with the other aspects of trading). The psychology of human behavior is a source for understanding what is happening in financial markets. The source for understanding the events occurring in the financial markets and the behavior of traders during exchange trading is the psychology of the human person. Emotions — greed, fear, doubt, hope, a sense of self-preservation — are peculiar to any person in life — are clearly manifested in the hard rhythm of decision-making during the dynamic course of exchange trading (which was partially considered above). Knowledge of the human psychology and their behavioral characteristics must be used to achieve success. The psychology of a trader is formed from a multitude of grains - it is a belief in what one does in the stock market, in one’s actions, in own system of one’s decisions, in trading method. In addition, the psychology of a trader is that one can unload oneself emotionally, one does not accept the intellectual challenge that the stock market carries. On the contrary, becomes restrained, calm when making decisions on operations in the stock market. There are many situations where a trader expresses his attention and focus; he does not disperse it on the tracking of news factors or on the receipt of stimuli from the news agencies. Consequently, the crowd psychology is the factor that makes prices move, therefore, in addition to assessing one's own psychological state, one must be sensitive to changes in the mood of other market participants, move in the flow, not against it, and then success will not take long.
Of course, you can argue that why do I need this psychology? After all, besides creating your own strategies and individual work, some exchanges (including crypto exchanges) allow minimizing risks by following the strategies of experienced traders; this service is called a PAMM account. PAMM provides an opportunity for clients (Subscribers) to follow the trading strategy of experienced and professional traders (Providers). Provider's trading results are publicly available. With the help of the rating of accounts, graphs of profitability and reviews of other traders, you can choose the most suitable Provider and begin to follow his strategy. Again, in this case, the provider is a human with all the ensuing consequences. And psychological aspects are not foreign to professionals as well, including victories and mistakes. The financial market attracts people the possibility of obtaining independence, including financial. A successful trader can live and work in any country in the world without having either a boss or subordinates. The motivation of people on the exchanges can be different: from getting a higher percentage than from a bank to making several thousand dollars a day. At the same time, there are two main categories of people in the financial market (including cryptocurrencies): investors who acquire assets or currency for a relatively long period, and speculators who profit from changes in the prices of certain assets for short periods. Many believe, an easy way to make money is not for everybody. First, the skillful use and manipulation of the psychological aspects of a human make it possible to become a speculator. And this, of course, in addition to knowledge and analytical skills. Experience shows that successful speculation is the right state of mind. It would seem that this is the simplest thing that can be acquired by human. But in fact, this self-tuning is available to very few. It is also necessary to distinguish the psychology of the market and the personal psychology of the trader. The behavior of the market as a whole depends on people, since it is the stock market crowd that determines its direction. However, quite often traders lose sight of the most important component of victory - managing their personal emotions, that is, their psychology. Without control over oneself, there can be no control over one’s trading capital. If a trader is not tuned to the trend range of the stock crowd, if he does not pay attention to changes in her psychology, then he will also not achieve significant success in trading. To succeed on the exchange, one needs to take a sober look at exchange trading, recognize its trends and their changes, and not waste time on dreams or lamenting about failures.
Any price of a financial instrument is a momentary agreement on its value, reached by a market crowd and expressed in the fact of a transaction, i.e. it is the equilibrium point between the players for a rise and a fall, or the "equilibrium" price. Crowds of traders create asset prices: buyers, sellers and fluctuating market watchers. Charts of prices and trading volumes reflect the psychology of the exchange. In addition, this is always worth remembering! After all, the main purpose of the presence of the analysis of psychology in stock trading is not the quantity, but the quality of transactions. A person striving to become a good trader needs to remember the words of DiNapoli, a well-known stock exchange trader: “The most important trading tool is not a computer, not a service for supplying information, or even methods developed by a trader. It is he himself! If a trader is not suitable for this - he should not trade at all”! Therefore, before pushing orders on the trading platform, think about whether you are suitable for this role.
Join chat — https://t.me/joinchat/AAAAAE84vCXg5PK-VpHADg
Sergiy Golubyev (Сергей Голубев)
EU structural funds, ICO projects, NGO & investment projects, project management, comprehensive support of business
submitted by Golubyev_Sergiy to u/Golubyev_Sergiy [link] [comments]

Community idea: Galt Bank

Hey guys time has come for us to get together and make great things on the Stellar platform and here is an idea for a community project where everybody can collaborate bringing their most useful skills to the team in management, marketing, programming, finance, operations, etc. Here is the deal...
We will build a Stellar Bank combined with a Stellar Marketplace that will spearhead a worldwide finance and commerce revolution. I firmly believe both go hand in hand in order to make Stellar fuel the economies of the world from Kenya to Australia, from Canada to Argentina, from Portugal to Estonia. Stellar is meant to be hedl and to be used too, and it is our mission to crack that nut and put it in the hands of the whole world.
With Galt Bank we will simplify how we use money, we will build the simplest and most secure wallet that will use our own federation service so people can send money by using their name, email or phone number, simplifying adoption and money use. We will crack world finance with a secret weapon I won't disclose yet but it is closely tied to the wallet and SDEX in a seamless way. We will provide an Exchange for people to trade in Forex, Crypto, Wall St and the revolutionary Galt St, all assets in the universe will be traded in our exchange.
With Stellar Marketplace we will create the greatest shopping experience of all leaving Amazon and Ebay in the dust as relics of a glorious era. There will be two divisions on the store, one for merchants and one for one time sellers. Merchants will have their own shop just like Shopify so they can build their own brand while casual sellers can post their own items without all the hassle of a full merchant registration and shop setup. This will be the marketplace of the future, no barriers, worldwide, two hundred fiat currencies and one crypto currency to bind them all.
For this project to come to fruition we will need lots of work and resources, and for that we will create a business entity, we will emmit our own shares based on a Stellar token with inflation to pay annual dividends to early investors. We will offer IPOs and ICOs in order to generate funds for the enterprise. The shares, dividends and strategies will be discussed and reached by consensus.
The hardest thing will be to make it all a community effort on the spotlight, in the open and with people from all over the world. We will have to organize, assess skills, vote, and take good, bad and hard decisions when necessary. The result of this project will be proportional to the potential of the people involved and to the vision and drive of our leaders.
We will use the full potential of the Stellar Network as it was meant to be, spearheading a financial revolution. Be part of this colossal project and be one of the trailblazers that will help us shape our own future. Join us.
https://galtbank.com
submitted by GreenGlider to Stellar [link] [comments]

How to use a Forex Robot

How to use a Forex Robot
https://preview.redd.it/p9ga08w641121.jpg?width=600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2e6efec7a84f437fab19c8d2e65a737bfbc3d38f
What Is an Algorithm or Forex Robot?
In its simplest form, an algorithm is a list of steps needed to solve a problem. When referring to algorithmic trading, we refer to steps written in machine language so that a computer can understand what you want and execute trades on behalf of you and your goals. An algorithm spans multiple functions outside of trading but either way the algorithmis used; it has a clear purpose to help compute large datasets in an efficient manner while abiding by key rules to help ensure the desired outcome. Algorithms accomplish this feat without having to worry about human biases or mental fatigue and high-level and high-frequency decision-making.
-Algorithm Trading Styles
The following list is not inclusive but does cover many commonly used strategies and styles in algorithmic trading:
Mean Reversion: Reverting to the mean takes the idea that an extended move away from a long-term average is likely short-term and due for a reversion or retracement. Algorithms that quantify extended moves based on an oscillator will utilize the average price over a set time and use that level as a target. There many popular tools and calculations for quantifying an extension that is due to revert but risk management must also be included in the algorithm encasing new trend is developing.
Trend following: Trend following is the first, and still very popular technique of algorithmic-based momentum investing. Trends are easy to see, but can be hard to trade without the help of an algorithm. Because algorithms take over for the mind and the minds inherent biases, many of the fears that plague discretionary trend followers do not effect algorithms. A common fear when riding a strong trend is that it is about to turn or end, but that fear is often unfounded. One of the first widely followed trend following algorithms looked to buy a 20-day price breakout and hold that trade until a 20-day price low took them out of the trade. The traders who have and still do employ this algorithmic approach and other similar approaches are often amazed at how long the strongest trends extend that they would have likely exited had their algorithms not managed the trade and exit on their behalf.
News Trading: Another popular style of trading in the archaic world of discretionary trading that now belongs to the Quants is news trading. These strategies scan high important news events and calculate what type of print relative to prior news events and expectations would be needed to place a trade. As you can imagine, the efficiency of receiving the data and calculating whether a trade should be placed in entering that trade is of key focus. This form of algorithmic trading often gets the lion share of media’s attention.
Arbitrage:Arbitrage is a word that has multiple meetings and strategies built around the concept. Historically, you could have euros trading in London at a different price than in New York so that a trader could buy the lower and sell the higher until equilibrium had been established. Nowadays, arbitrage algorithm strategies are more geared to highly correlated assets whose underlying fundamental effects are very similar. When a wide spread in value between the highly correlated assets are recognized, the algorithm will either by the lower and or sell the higher until an equilibrium is met similar to the mean reversion strategy.
High-Frequency Trading and Scalping: For our purposes, will look at these as synonymous even though trading desks and hedge funds view them separately. True high-frequency trading attempts to beat out other traders to the thousand of a second and to do so some firms position their computers next door to an exchange to see in one millisecond faster than a competitor if something is rising by a penny.
Unless you’re looking to buy a house next to the New York Stock Exchange to compete with billion-dollar hedge funds, short-term trading or scalping is likely more up your alley. Even this term has evolved over time whereas traders use to look to make profits on the difference in the bid-ask spread but now has taken a wider meeting for very short-term traits.
For more information about algorithmic trading, click here
submitted by iforexrobot to u/iforexrobot [link] [comments]

The Six Best Crypto Trading Strategies

The Six Best Crypto Trading Strategies
https://preview.redd.it/8uc3berff2g11.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=56b0505f79db9ada8014c84d345cd0c0025f14f5
The Best Six Crypto Trading Strategies Revealed
Cryptocurrency also called digital currency, virtual currency or alternate currency is emerging as the future of money. The crypto world provides an enormous return on investment for traders to flourish and prosper. Due to the decentralized control and the blockchain technology, people find crypto trading to be more transparent as it doesn’t require a central authority.
On the other hand, the crypto market is very sensitive and security breaches can happen at fraction of a second. There are many hacks that happened in the crypto market that shook the world. Bithumb was hacked at June 2018 and $30 million coins were stolen. These incidents are a mounting evidence which proves how violative is the cryptocurrency market. This article will unveil the top trading strategies that can be used for both stock market and cryptocurrency trading.
Scalping
Scalping is the act of attaining huge profits on minor changes in the asset(coin). Traders who implement this strategy is called a “scalper”. Here the scalpers believe that small moves in the stock price can gain huge profits. The idea is to buy or sell a number of assets at the holding time and sell them higher or lower for a profit. This scalping strategy is perfect for intraday trading.
Technical analysis has to be done before scalping and a scalper spends 8-10 hours in the forex market. A scalper should be proactive to take advantage of the fluctuations in the market. Scalping is more trending in the cryptocurrency market due to the fluctuations in the price of the tokens. Scalping if done statistically keeping in mind of avoiding late entries, overtrading and late exists, scalpers will be able to reap the desired profit in the cryptocurrency trading.
Day trading
Day trading is the most lucrative strategy for people in both the stock and crypto market. This trading is quite similar to the scalping method. The difference is in scalping there are hundreds of transactions done whereas in day trading only very few transactions are done. To be precise, day trading is buying or selling of assets on the same day, to make the most of the market fluctuations. Traders make the most from the minute changes of the price of the asset/coin.
A day trader can make double the profit which means he or she can gain more money from the original money they have spend. Here the holding time is eliminated as the traders hold their assets to a maximum of 2 hours per day. This day trading strategy for cryptocurrency would work only if the market is stable.
Range-bound trading
Range-bound trading is the trading capitalizing on stocks in price channels. This trading is widely used by forex traders and other traders. The concept behind the range-bound trading is identifying the support and resistance areas in order to connect reaction highs and lows with a horizontal trendline.
The reliability of the trendlines depends on the number of times the price has reacted to it. The method is traders repeatedly buy at the support trendline and sell at the resistance trendline until the security breaks out from a price channel. In range-bound trading, it is imperative for the traders to watch for potential breakouts and breakdowns.
Swing trading
Swing trading is similar to the day trading. In day trading the holding time of an asset is a maximum couple of hours a day whereas in swing trade the holding time can extend up to a week or couple of weeks. This type of trading involves in identifying the trends lows, highs and calculating the risk. Before jumping into the swing trading a lot of market analysis has to be done by the trader. A sound technical analysis is needed than day trading. Using this strategy in cryptocurrency is based on the estimation of the trend line and when it is going swing high.
Position trading
Position trading is also called as HOLDing, where an investor holds on his assets through its highs and lows without the intention to sell it. The concept of HOlDing is just buying the coins and put them in your wallet. The investors do not involve in any transactions from months to years and only sells his coins with his own intention or find a threat to his asset. A position trader is neither worried about the market fluctuations nor bothers of the daily, monthly news of the crypto market. This position trading is implemented once or twice a year which makes the trader a long-term investor.
Arbitrage trading
Arbitrage is the simplest method of trading. The concept behind this trading is buying a coin from an exchange where the price is lower and selling it in another exchange where the price is relatively high for that particular coin. The price difference marks the profit gain for the trader. This kind of trading is widely used in the crypto market as it doesn’t require any technical knowledge to perform it. Arbitrage trading can be automated and can be performed by a bot. This trading may present a lucrative window of opportunity to generate passive income for the newbies entering the cryptomarket.
submitted by PrimeTradeAI to PrimeTradeAI [link] [comments]

Can Chatbots be Intelligent?

Can Chatbots be Intelligent?
Businesses devise a billion ways of wooing customers, every day. If a chatbot can be a useful accomplice toward that end, why not give it a try? Afterall, who wouldn’t want a tool that can hold an intelligent conversation with customers, make them feel comfortable and bind them to your business.
Is it possible?
Recall that memorable scene from the award winning 2003 film, Lost in Translation, where an aging American actor, Bob Harris (played by Bill Murray), is on a set in Tokyo to shoot a whiskey commercial. The director, Yutaka Tadokoro, begins instructing Bob in Japanese, and the slapdash interpreter fails to capture the meaning—namely, it gets lost in translation. The process bogs down, and the commercial is a disaster.
You don’t want human-to-computer interactions to end up that way, right? But one-way communications prove to be too exasperating to users. People give up on trying to get a machine understand their intentions in a few clicks and presses. There’s that missing vibe, that interactive component in any human-computer engagement; and it’s the main reason a vast majority feels they must adapt to the technologies they use, rather than technology adapting to them.
https://preview.redd.it/mzxagl6zwrd11.jpg?width=220&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=49da6f90e91dc9686b28c337b159b74c7f6dd3bf
Enter 2018, and we have artificial intelligence (AI)-driven chatbots that are revolutionizing human-computer interactions just the way the humans want it. Chatbots today are more adaptive to the way people speak and mimic their emotions to the nearest binary. 2018 is paving the way for a great chatbot innovation.
Meanwhile, developers are working tirelessly to bring in new consumer experiences to market. For example, once WhatsApp opens to bots next year, it will unlock direct access to over one billion new users. Chatbots are continuing to push the envelope of new technology further.
To reckon with, a chatbot isn’t an additional handle on your website or a fancy add-on. It’s the need of the hour for every business that’s flourishing or aspires to flourish. In a market that’s fiercely competitive, customers expect to receive accurate information quickly enough to make a decision. As a business owner, you need to cater to that need. If you don’t have funds to recruit more people to answer all the questions customers throw at you, then deploying a smart chatbot can rescue your business in that case.
https://preview.redd.it/vpuz6mb1xrd11.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=f615929b9f190e38afe38c3d59ba084dbfc9747b
But then intelligence also matters as it determines the kind of tasks or conversations your chatbot can handle. Needless to say, if you have a clear set of activities preconceived in your mind, you can build awesome customized bots.
Let’s take you through a short read about 5 important things that can make a chatbot intelligent.
1. Bots need to understand human conversations:
The bot needs to be quick and intelligent enough to understand the context of the conversation happening in real time. It’s about sense and sensibility, in conversations.
Normal human conversations are replete with instances of switching over context while talking, while at work - resuming a task, discarding the current task and switching to a newer one, or in general hold a task while the other is being executed and work on follow on. Human conversations tend to switch between contexts and variables (intents and entities), often combining multiple things into one.
Sample this response to a flight booking bot for example, "My Destination? San Francisco. But how's the weather over there?"
What should be the bot’s response here - capture the entity and continue booking or check the weather before that?
In this case, chatbots need to
  • have context switching abilities to handle interruptions smartly and provide full control to developers in defining the experience
  • capture unattended interruptions from a conversation flow and keep them accessible
  • be equipped with human conversations and have the ability to hold and resume a dialog for a certain amount of time and execute the tasks in sequential order, and especially while understanding human emotions
You may argue that a bot is after all a machine and cannot absorb emotions, but all said and done, it also depends partly on how much capability you build into it. So, it must be clever enough to filter the feelings of the customer. The bot needs to understand, analyze and respond based on the human emotion. For instance, if a customer messages an online shopping portal saying, “Your service is amazing, the delivery of items are always 2 to 3 days delayed”, none can miss the biting sarcasm intended in the statement. But if the bot isn’t developed to cater to this sort of sentiment, it may end up answering in a horribly awry manner.
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Intelligent bots will have: Sentiment analysis, context switching, hold and resume feature.
2. Standardization and uniformity in bot utterances
It’s important to remember that a chatbot must give vibes closest to humans as much as possible. The way humans carry the stamp of their personality and style, bots too need to be enabled to do that. When asked about something, a bot must respond in a particular way and pattern that sounds like a human. This warms the usecustomer and makes him feel at ease during the conversation with a chatbot.
“You must have direct connection with your customers as part of your brand’s identity, even more than your website that doesn’t seem to have an identity, this will have a personality.”- William Meisel
Thus, chatbots need to
  • understand and remember the user context - make all user information available in a single location and accessible
  • store the user profile with information like first name, last name and make it accessible to all the systems for the convenience of the user.
  • remember what a specific user talks to a specific bot, in an enterprise scenario it needs to keep certain features such as prompt for ‘Password length’ / ‘folder for HR information, constant for all the employees in the enterprise
It’s important for a chatbot to keep a current task which is being executed in an active mode and store information.
As a corollary, customers appreciate and connect with the support executives (call support executives/shopping store helpers) who can remember their preferences, can validate their purchases, help them with more information on products, and basically give importance to them while attending to their queries. For example, in a Forex platform the currency against each country is maintained constant across all systems for everyone to access. The platform tends to store the first and last name of the customer, their last transaction and their payment options.
Chatbots now have the responsibility to standardize their understanding of a customer and respond to them accordingly, whether in the manner of communicating or the speed with which they resolve their query. Chatbots need to converse with customers to extract this information and keep up to their pace.
https://preview.redd.it/flps4l6bxrd11.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=dee88672cef176ed92778e962a9029543ee6cbd9
Intelligent bots will have features like: Small talk, Bot user session, Enterprise context, User context and User session
3. Making the complex conversation sound simple
Chatbots are expected to break the complex structures of conversations into simpler tones and bring to a logical conclusion. Here’s where ‘Artificial Intelligence’ comes into play. Among the many types of chatbots, the most common ones are task specific that cater to a specific job, with pre-loaded answers and information. These type of chatbots have the ability to gather data from the internet, previous company database and other sources. Therefore, these bots are able to reply to diverse queries.
The intelligent bots, in addition, have the potential to mold the conversation the way the customer wants and guide him towards a specific solution. In an office setup, it’s common for a conversation like, “Hey Lisa, set up a meeting with Phani if he’s free”, to be handled between a Boss and Secretary. To enable that, the chatbot needs to first look up the calendar of ‘Phani’, find a suitable time for a meeting in sync with the Boss’s schedule and then reschedule the meeting. Chatbots thus need to break up complex sounding conversation into simpler nuances and then execute the task sequentially and logically.
Intelligent bots can also break down the conversation to its essence and action items. Let’s look at a very common scenario: ‘Customer tries to book tickets for 14th August, confirms on the choice of airlines, origin and destination and navigates to the next page, but feels that the pricing is very high. The customer then asks the bot to check for ‘15th August instead’. Here, based on the situation, the chatbot is acting and will be able to display the new prices by changing the date of journey.
https://preview.redd.it/bzfoasiexrd11.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=67d134343093daf3d239c9bcfd0b315fb687d333
Intelligent bots will have features like: Amend Entities, Planning.
4. Adapting to human utterances
In the context of human–computer communication, forming assumptions about what a system can do and understand is problematic for most people. In turn, forming assumptions about how users will “talk to” the system is also likely to be problematic for system developers. The potential for variability in how users will communicate with a system is enormous and has been dubbed “The Vocabulary Problem.”
An intelligent chatbot can not only handle queries smartly and remembers them through the session, but also learns new things with every conversation that happens, saves them and uses them appropriately for future instances.
In a human conversation and especially over voice, there are bound to be
  • expectation of elaboration or confirmation (“can you hear me?”, “I do not follow”)
  • request for repeat of sentences (“ I’m sorry I couldn’t hear that, can you please repeat it again?” “Sorry, can you repeat?”)
  • pauses (“can you please hold? [pause] thank you!”)
  • interruptions (“the number is 212-” “sorry can you start over?” )
The simplest thing to do when writing responses to command and inquiry utterances in a conversational UI is to get straight to the point: respond with facts. That’ll remove a lot of the ambiguity and simplify the dialogue.
It’s up to the intelligent chatbot to adapt to the way the human responds - with the referential context (or) pauses (or) specific context (or) synonyms (or) repetition (or) abbreviations (or) variations in dialect. The chatbot needs to map it pre-contextually. But like their human counterparts, chatbots’ conversational skills determine whether they earn you seamless, scalable transactions or just another horde of pissed-off customers. This needs a lot of training by the chatbot to help continue the conversations to the logical ending.
https://preview.redd.it/u5g63jovxrd11.jpg?width=1581&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1f394c933c28c1079cf290156de09f285b2054d1
Intelligent bots will have features like: Sync, Repeat, Interruptions and Pauses.
5. When bots are kept simple
Although AI chatbots’ task is complicated and they need to be built up that way, yet the effort should be made to keep it simple. They need to be comprehensive yet detailed. A customer initiating a conversation with a chatbot might already be troubled due to some poor service related issue, hence it’s better not to irk him further with complex interaction. The bot should be answering the already irked usecustomer in a most precise way possible without confusing the person further. It’s easy to figure out if you are talking to a bot or a human. Make sure the customer knows that they are talking to a bot by welcoming them with some sort of welcome message. Nobody likes being told the same thing over and over again, so why do chatbots keep doing it? Bots should detect when they’re about to repeat a previously given answer and switch strategies. If the answer didn’t resolve the user’s needs before, repeating it certainly won’t either. From the user interface, to the dialog flow the experience should be pleasant, and information given to the user needs to be valuable and crisp.
Twitter also provides the option to give your bot a custom name for different sections of the bot, which can be of use. It’s important to show what the chatbot is capable of doing with Quick Replies. The customer needs to be a guided stepwise within the conversation and with enough accessible options to choose from.
Lastly, there must always be a way to end the conversation with the bot and switch to a human agent. Many bots today include a Quick Reply to “Speak to an Agent”. Certain actions, such as open-ended visual search, are challenging to complete in a messaging environment. In those situations, bots can route to a website or app to help the user complete goals they couldn’t execute within the context of chat.
https://preview.redd.it/gc1j3z4sxrd11.jpg?width=578&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=331b9de9fcfa0c26ddf34eeb93783e909ecab6cf
Intelligent bots will have features like: Simple UI, Simpler steps, Agent Handoff
In a nutshell, a chatbot must be programmed to not just provide optimum solutions to problems, but also converse with customers in an engaging manner. The interaction must be exciting and the bot must appear to be curious enough to answer all queries. People prefer lively interactions and a chatbot needs to meet that expectation.
https://preview.redd.it/erd22jzpxrd11.jpg?width=1505&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=d83e0de6283b47b1210a912d26e23dd8023d3afc
For example, there are bots aligned with online shopping portals that can actually sense your liking and disliking. They can cancel orders for you accordingly and order the stuff that you actually want. Businesses are now moving way ahead than what anyone had ever thought of earlier. If we have an amazing concept like messenger or Kore.aiBots Platform, then why not use them to the full extent. Their proficiency in collecting massive data in a short period of time can be used to forecast upcoming business. You know it better how to get edgy with this interesting concept. The more you experiment with chatbots, the more you would get to know the wonders you can create with these little machines.
Some of the Global 2,000 companies and large enterprises are using Kore.ai Bots Platform to build their chatbots. How about you?
To get everything you need to build and deploy intelligent, enterprise-grade chatbots — without unnecessary complexity, click on Build your first BOT.
To ask questions, get tips, learn and grow with Kore.AI developer community, click on Ask questions on Developer Community.
Also Read on : Chatbots (of) the Future
Thank You
Phani Marupaka
LinkedIn| Tweet at : @phani_teja
submitted by PhaniTeja4 to u/PhaniTeja4 [link] [comments]

The Six Best Crypto Trading Strategies

https://preview.redd.it/6jp0w5x7f2g11.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=cc1ce04b711c2c83a05d4a1f3d9a963e43172a02
The Best Six Crypto Trading Strategies Revealed
Cryptocurrency also called digital currency, virtual currency or alternate currency is emerging as the future of money. The crypto world provides an enormous return on investment for traders to flourish and prosper. Due to the decentralized control and the blockchain technology, people find crypto trading to be more transparent as it doesn’t require a central authority.
On the other hand, the crypto market is very sensitive and security breaches can happen at fraction of a second. There are many hacks that happened in the crypto market that shook the world. Bithumb was hacked at June 2018 and $30 million coins were stolen. These incidents are a mounting evidence which proves how violative is the cryptocurrency market. This article will unveil the top trading strategies that can be used for both stock market and cryptocurrency trading.
Scalping
Scalping is the act of attaining huge profits on minor changes in the asset(coin). Traders who implement this strategy is called a “scalper”. Here the scalpers believe that small moves in the stock price can gain huge profits. The idea is to buy or sell a number of assets at the holding time and sell them higher or lower for a profit. This scalping strategy is perfect for intraday trading.
Technical analysis has to be done before scalping and a scalper spends 8-10 hours in the forex market. A scalper should be proactive to take advantage of the fluctuations in the market. Scalping is more trending in the cryptocurrency market due to the fluctuations in the price of the tokens. Scalping if done statistically keeping in mind of avoiding late entries, overtrading and late exists, scalpers will be able to reap the desired profit in the cryptocurrency trading.
Day trading
Day trading is the most lucrative strategy for people in both the stock and crypto market. This trading is quite similar to the scalping method. The difference is in scalping there are hundreds of transactions done whereas in day trading only very few transactions are done. To be precise, day trading is buying or selling of assets on the same day, to make the most of the market fluctuations. Traders make the most from the minute changes of the price of the asset/coin.
A day trader can make double the profit which means he or she can gain more money from the original money they have spend. Here the holding time is eliminated as the traders hold their assets to a maximum of 2 hours per day. This day trading strategy for cryptocurrency would work only if the market is stable.
Range-bound trading
Range-bound trading is the trading capitalizing on stocks in price channels. This trading is widely used by forex traders and other traders. The concept behind the range-bound trading is identifying the support and resistance areas in order to connect reaction highs and lows with a horizontal trendline.
The reliability of the trendlines depends on the number of times the price has reacted to it. The method is traders repeatedly buy at the support trendline and sell at the resistance trendline until the security breaks out from a price channel. In range-bound trading, it is imperative for the traders to watch for potential breakouts and breakdowns.
Swing trading
Swing trading is similar to the day trading. In day trading the holding time of an asset is a maximum couple of hours a day whereas in swing trade the holding time can extend up to a week or couple of weeks. This type of trading involves in identifying the trends lows, highs and calculating the risk. Before jumping into the swing trading a lot of market analysis has to be done by the trader. A sound technical analysis is needed than day trading. Using this strategy in cryptocurrency is based on the estimation of the trend line and when it is going swing high.
Position trading
Position trading is also called as HOLDing, where an investor holds on his assets through its highs and lows without the intention to sell it. The concept of HOlDing is just buying the coins and put them in your wallet. The investors do not involve in any transactions from months to years and only sells his coins with his own intention or find a threat to his asset. A position trader is neither worried about the market fluctuations nor bothers of the daily, monthly news of the crypto market. This position trading is implemented once or twice a year which makes the trader a long-term investor.
Arbitrage trading
Arbitrage is the simplest method of trading. The concept behind this trading is buying a coin from an exchange where the price is lower and selling it in another exchange where the price is relatively high for that particular coin. The price difference marks the profit gain for the trader. This kind of trading is widely used in the crypto market as it doesn’t require any technical knowledge to perform it. Arbitrage trading can be automated and can be performed by a bot. This trading may present a lucrative window of opportunity to generate passive income for the newbies entering the cryptomarket.
submitted by PrimeTradeAI to cryptotrading [link] [comments]

Can Chatbots be Intelligent?

Can Chatbots be Intelligent?
Businesses devise a billion ways of wooing customers, every day. If a chatbot can be a useful accomplice toward that end, why not give it a try? Afterall, who wouldn’t want a tool that can hold an intelligent conversation with customers, make them feel comfortable and bind them to your business.
Is it possible?
Recall that memorable scene from the award winning 2003 film, Lost in Translation, where an aging American actor, Bob Harris (played by Bill Murray), is on a set in Tokyo to shoot a whiskey commercial. The director, Yutaka Tadokoro, begins instructing Bob in Japanese, and the slapdash interpreter fails to capture the meaning—namely, it gets lost in translation. The process bogs down, and the commercial is a disaster.
https://preview.redd.it/6vqwiux3urd11.jpg?width=220&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fd5151869d3e932a32f56fc969406633cd3ba623
You don’t want human-to-computer interactions to end up that way, right? But one-way communications prove to be too exasperating to users. People give up on trying to get a machine understand their intentions in a few clicks and presses. There’s that missing vibe, that interactive component in any human-computer engagement; and it’s the main reason a vast majority feels they must adapt to the technologies they use, rather than technology adapting to them.
Enter 2018, and we have artificial intelligence (AI)-driven chatbots that are revolutionizing human-computer interactions just the way the humans want it. Chatbots today are more adaptive to the way people speak and mimic their emotions to the nearest binary. 2018 is paving the way for a great chatbot innovation.
https://preview.redd.it/27twgl16urd11.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=c2a83408e1f5a9495428fff1f4cc0414d30b8d84
Meanwhile, developers are working tirelessly to bring in new consumer experiences to market. For example, once WhatsApp opens to bots next year, it will unlock direct access to over one billion new users. Chatbots are continuing to push the envelope of new technology further.
To reckon with, a chatbot isn’t an additional handle on your website or a fancy add-on. It’s the need of the hour for every business that’s flourishing or aspires to flourish. In a market that’s fiercely competitive, customers expect to receive accurate information quickly enough to make a decision. As a business owner, you need to cater to that need. If you don’t have funds to recruit more people to answer all the questions customers throw at you, then deploying a smart chatbot can rescue your business in that case.
But then intelligence also matters as it determines the kind of tasks or conversations your chatbot can handle. Needless to say, if you have a clear set of activities preconceived in your mind, you can build awesome customized bots.
Let’s take you through a short read about 5 important things that can make a chatbot intelligent.
1. Bots need to understand human conversations:
The bot needs to be quick and intelligent enough to understand the context of the conversation happening in real time. It’s about sense and sensibility, in conversations.
Normal human conversations are replete with instances of switching over context while talking, while at work - resuming a task, discarding the current task and switching to a newer one, or in general hold a task while the other is being executed and work on follow on. Human conversations tend to switch between contexts and variables (intents and entities), often combining multiple things into one.
Sample this response to a flight booking bot for example, "My Destination? San Francisco. But how's the weather over there?"
What should be the bot’s response here - capture the entity and continue booking or check the weather before that?
In this case, chatbots need to
  • have context switching abilities to handle interruptions smartly and provide full control to developers in defining the experience
  • capture unattended interruptions from a conversation flow and keep them accessible
  • be equipped with human conversations and have the ability to hold and resume a dialog for a certain amount of time and execute the tasks in sequential order, and especially while understanding human emotions
You may argue that a bot is after all a machine and cannot absorb emotions, but all said and done, it also depends partly on how much capability you build into it. So, it must be clever enough to filter the feelings of the customer. The bot needs to understand, analyze and respond based on the human emotion. For instance, if a customer messages an online shopping portal saying, “Your service is amazing, the delivery of items are always 2 to 3 days delayed”, none can miss the biting sarcasm intended in the statement. But if the bot isn’t developed to cater to this sort of sentiment, it may end up answering in a horribly awry manner.
Intelligent bots will have: Sentiment analysis, context switching, hold and resume feature.
2. Standardization and uniformity in bot utterances
It’s important to remember that a chatbot must give vibes closest to humans as much as possible. The way humans carry the stamp of their personality and style, bots too need to be enabled to do that. When asked about something, a bot must respond in a particular way and pattern that sounds like a human. This warms the usecustomer and makes him feel at ease during the conversation with a chatbot.
“You must have direct connection with your customers as part of your brand’s identity, even more than your website that doesn’t seem to have an identity, this will have a personality.”- William Meisel
Thus, chatbots need to
  • understand and remember the user context - make all user information available in a single location and accessible
  • store the user profile with information like first name, last name and make it accessible to all the systems for the convenience of the user.
  • remember what a specific user talks to a specific bot, in an enterprise scenario it needs to keep certain features such as prompt for ‘Password length’ / ‘folder for HR information, constant for all the employees in the enterprise
It’s important for a chatbot to keep a current task which is being executed in an active mode and store information.
As a corollary, customers appreciate and connect with the support executives (call support executives/shopping store helpers) who can remember their preferences, can validate their purchases, help them with more information on products, and basically give importance to them while attending to their queries. For example, in a Forex platform the currency against each country is maintained constant across all systems for everyone to access. The platform tends to store the first and last name of the customer, their last transaction and their payment options.
Chatbots now have the responsibility to standardize their understanding of a customer and respond to them accordingly, whether in the manner of communicating or the speed with which they resolve their query. Chatbots need to converse with customers to extract this information and keep up to their pace.
Intelligent bots will have features like: Small talk, Bot user session, Enterprise context, User context and User session
3. Making the complex conversation sound simple
Chatbots are expected to break the complex structures of conversations into simpler tones and bring to a logical conclusion. Here’s where ‘Artificial Intelligence’ comes into play. Among the many types of chatbots, the most common ones are task specific that cater to a specific job, with pre-loaded answers and information. These type of chatbots have the ability to gather data from the internet, previous company database and other sources. Therefore, these bots are able to reply to diverse queries.
The intelligent bots, in addition, have the potential to mold the conversation the way the customer wants and guide him towards a specific solution. In an office setup, it’s common for a conversation like, “Hey Lisa, set up a meeting with Phani if he’s free”, to be handled between a Boss and Secretary. To enable that, the chatbot needs to first look up the calendar of ‘Phani’, find a suitable time for a meeting in sync with the Boss’s schedule and then reschedule the meeting. Chatbots thus need to break up complex sounding conversation into simpler nuances and then execute the task sequentially and logically.
Intelligent bots can also break down the conversation to its essence and action items. Let’s look at a very common scenario: ‘Customer tries to book tickets for 14th August, confirms on the choice of airlines, origin and destination and navigates to the next page, but feels that the pricing is very high. The customer then asks the bot to check for ‘15th August instead’. Here, based on the situation, the chatbot is acting and will be able to display the new prices by changing the date of journey.
Intelligent bots will have features like: Amend Entities, Planning.
4. Adapting to human utterances
In the context of human–computer communication, forming assumptions about what a system can do and understand is problematic for most people. In turn, forming assumptions about how users will “talk to” the system is also likely to be problematic for system developers. The potential for variability in how users will communicate with a system is enormous and has been dubbed “The Vocabulary Problem.”
An intelligent chatbot can not only handle queries smartly and remembers them through the session, but also learns new things with every conversation that happens, saves them and uses them appropriately for future instances.
In a human conversation and especially over voice, there are bound to be
  • expectation of elaboration or confirmation (“can you hear me?”, “I do not follow”)
  • request for repeat of sentences (“ I’m sorry I couldn’t hear that, can you please repeat it again?” “Sorry, can you repeat?”)
  • pauses (“can you please hold? [pause] thank you!”)
  • interruptions (“the number is 212-” “sorry can you start over?” )
The simplest thing to do when writing responses to command and inquiry utterances in a conversational UI is to get straight to the point: respond with facts. That’ll remove a lot of the ambiguity and simplify the dialogue.
It’s up to the intelligent chatbot to adapt to the way the human responds - with the referential context (or) pauses (or) specific context (or) synonyms (or) repetition (or) abbreviations (or) variations in dialect. The chatbot needs to map it pre-contextually. But like their human counterparts, chatbots’ conversational skills determine whether they earn you seamless, scalable transactions or just another horde of pissed-off customers. This needs a lot of training by the chatbot to help continue the conversations to the logical ending.
Intelligent bots will have features like: Sync, Repeat, Interruptions and Pauses.
📷
5. When bots are kept simple
Although AI chatbots’ task is complicated and they need to be built up that way, yet the effort should be made to keep it simple. They need to be comprehensive yet detailed. A customer initiating a conversation with a chatbot might already be troubled due to some poor service related issue, hence it’s better not to irk him further with complex interaction. The bot should be answering the already irked usecustomer in a most precise way possible without confusing the person further. It’s easy to figure out if you are talking to a bot or a human. Make sure the customer knows that they are talking to a bot by welcoming them with some sort of welcome message. Nobody likes being told the same thing over and over again, so why do chatbots keep doing it? Bots should detect when they’re about to repeat a previously given answer and switch strategies. If the answer didn’t resolve the user’s needs before, repeating it certainly won’t either. From the user interface, to the dialog flow the experience should be pleasant, and information given to the user needs to be valuable and crisp.
Twitter also provides the option to give your bot a custom name for different sections of the bot, which can be of use. It’s important to show what the chatbot is capable of doing with Quick Replies. The customer needs to be a guided stepwise within the conversation and with enough accessible options to choose from.
Lastly, there must always be a way to end the conversation with the bot and switch to a human agent. Many bots today include a Quick Reply to “Speak to an Agent”. Certain actions, such as open-ended visual search, are challenging to complete in a messaging environment. In those situations, bots can route to a website or app to help the user complete goals they couldn’t execute within the context of chat.
Intelligent bots will have features like: Simple UI, Simpler steps, Agent Handoff
In a nutshell, a chatbot must be programmed to not just provide optimum solutions to problems, but also converse with customers in an engaging manner. The interaction must be exciting and the bot must appear to be curious enough to answer all queries. People prefer lively interactions and a chatbot needs to meet that expectation.
https://preview.redd.it/ri36kv7aurd11.jpg?width=800&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b8d3f5a1bab5b31dc3617f4bb7645e88bf70f836
For example, there are bots aligned with online shopping portals that can actually sense your liking and disliking. They can cancel orders for you accordingly and order the stuff that you actually want. Businesses are now moving way ahead than what anyone had ever thought of earlier. If we have an amazing concept like messenger or Kore.aiBots Platform, then why not use them to the full extent. Their proficiency in collecting massive data in a short period of time can be used to forecast upcoming business. You know it better how to get edgy with this interesting concept. The more you experiment with chatbots, the more you would get to know the wonders you can create with these little machines.
Some of the Global 2,000 companies and large enterprises are using Kore.ai Bots Platform to build their chatbots. How about you?
To get everything you need to build and deploy intelligent, enterprise-grade chatbots — without unnecessary complexity, click on Build your first BOT.
To ask questions, get tips, learn and grow with Kore.AI developer community, click on Ask questions on Developer Community.
Also Read on : Chatbots (of) the Future
Thank You
Phani Marupaka
LinkedIn| Tweet at : @phani_teja
submitted by PhaniTeja4 to Chatbots [link] [comments]

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